What is a Turning?(lightweight strong material cheap Ruby)

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A turning is a machining process in which a cutting tool removes material from a rotating workpiece to generate a specified shape. Turning is one of the most common and versatile machining processes and is an integral part of manufacturing. It is performed on a lathe machine, which holds and rotates the workpiece at high speeds while a tool is fed into it to cut away material.
The turning process can produce cylindrical shapes that have an axis of rotational symmetry, as well as other complex shapes through controlled movement of the cutting tool. Some key aspects of turning include:
Types of Turning
There are several main types of turning processes:
- External turning - The outside diameter of a cylindrical workpiece is reduced to create the desired shape. This is the most common type of turning.
- Internal turning - Also known as boring, the internal diameter of a cylindrical workpiece is increased through this process.
- Facing - Used to create a flat surface on the end of a cylinder. The tool moves at a right angle to the rotational axis to cut the end of the piece.
- Grooving/parting - A process for cutting grooves and slots or for parting off workpieces.
- Threading - Threads are cut into a workpiece through turning. Both external and internal threads can be produced.
- Form turning - Complex shapes can be generated through controlled movement of the cutting tool during the turning process.
Turning Operations
The primary turning operations include:
- Rough turning - The initial stage of the turning process where the majority of the material is removed to approach the final dimensions. Heavier cuts are taken at high speeds.
- Finish turning - The final turning stage where light cuts are taken to generate the required precision final dimensions and surface finish. Slower speeds are used.
- Chamfering - Turning a beveled edge onto a part. Common for removing burrs and providing a lead-in for assembling parts.
- Grooving - Narrow cuts along a part to create a groove or to cut off a part.
- Parting - A deeper grooving operation used to cut off a completed part from the source material.
- Boring - Enlarging or smoothing internal diameters through turning internal surfaces. Requires a boring bar tool.
- Drilling - Creating a round hole in the center of a workpiece. Performed on a lathe by feeding the drill tool along the axis of rotation.
- Taper turning - Shaping a tapered cylindrical form by turning along the angled sides of the workpiece.
Turning Tools
There is a wide variety of tools that can be used for the turning processes. Common tool types include:
- Turning tool bits - Single point tools made of carbide or high speed steel. Available in various shapes for different operations. Brazed onto tool holders for rigidity.
- Boring bars - Long bars holding boring heads used to enlarge internal diameters from the inside out.
- Threading tools - Specially ground tools for cutting thread forms.
- Form tools - Formed cutters to generate complex shapes through form turning.
- Knurling tools - For rolling patterns onto a part for improved grip.
- Parting/grooving tools - Thin tools for cutting narrow grooves or parting.
The proper selection of turning tools and adjustments of parameters like feed rate and depth of cut is critical for efficient turning with good surface finishes and dimensional accuracy. Tool holders also play an important role in providing sufficient rigidity during turning.
Turning Machines
Turning is performed on a machine called a lathe, which provides controlled rotation of the workpiece and linear motion of the cutting tool. There are several types of lathes:
- Engine lathe - The standard lathe with a horizontal bed and spindle. Used for both cylindrical and complex shapes.
- Turret lathe - Has a rotating turret that allows for quick changeover between multiple tools. Increased automation.
- Vertical turning lathe - Oriented with vertical bed and spindle. Used for large diameter workpieces.
- CNC lathe - Computer numeric control applied to lathes provides automated control of cutting parameters.
- Multi-axis turning centers - Can facilitate more advanced contouring operations with multiple coordinated axes.
Lathes range from basic manually operated machines to highly sophisticated computerized machines suitable for high production applications. Heavy duty lathes are capable of turning very large diameter workpieces. Key lathe components include the headstock, tailstock, carriage, and various tool holders and accessories.
Turning Applications
Turning has many applications across industrial sectors due to its versatility. Some typical parts produced by turning include:
- Shafts
- Bearings
- Disks
- Rollers
- Pistons
- Pulleys
- Bushings
- Sleeves
Turning is commonly applied in machinery fabrication, automotive manufacturing, aerospace manufacturing, and ordnance factories. It is also an essential process for crafting metal parts and products by skilled artisans. When performed on a metal lathe, it can produce anything from small custom components to high volume turned parts.
The turning processes produce machined surfaces of superior quality and accuracy. With computer numeric control, turning can deliver high precision components shaped to meet stringent design specifications. This makes turning integral to today's advanced manufacturing sector. CNC Milling CNC Machining