What is a Turning?(what is the strongest and lightest metal Luther)

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  • source:BREDA CNC Machining
A turning is a machining operation performed on a lathe or turning machine to produce cylindrical parts. In turning, the workpiece is rotated at high speeds while a cutting tool moves linearly along its axis to remove material. This produces the desired cylindrical shape and smooth surface finish. Turning is one of the most common and versatile machining processes used in manufacturing.
How Does Turning Work?
The basic turning process involves rotating the workpiece mounted in a chuck or between centers while the cutting tool feeds towards it. The cutting tool, usually a high speed steel or carbide insert, is held rigidly in the tool post and can be fed horizontally or vertically into the workpiece. As the tool makes contact with the rotating workpiece, material is removed in the form of chips to create the desired shape.
The linear feed rates and depth of cuts are precisely controlled to achieve the required dimensions and surface finish. Coolants are often applied to remove heat, lubricate, and flush away chips from the cutting zone. Turning produces cylindrical shapes that may be straight, tapered, grooved, or contoured. Various turning operations are used to complete a part, such as roughing, facing, boring, grooving, chamfering, and finishing.
Types of Turning Operations:
- Rough Turning: The initial operation to remove large amounts of material and bring the workpiece close to the final dimensions. Heavier cuts and feed rates are used.
- Facing: Turning the end face of a cylindrical workpiece flat and perpendicular to its axis. This creates a reference surface.
- Boring: Enlarging of internal diameters to precise sizes using boring bars. Used to create holes, internal tapers, and meet tolerance requirements.
- Grooving: Cutting grooves of various widths and depths on the workpiece using form tools like grooving tool, dovetail tool, etc.
- Chamfering: Beveling sharp edges for improved part handling and assembly. Done using chamfering tools.
- Finishing Turning: The final turning operation with light cuts to achieve the high surface finish and tight tolerances required.
Types of Turning Machines
There are several types of turning machines designed for different turning applications:
- Engine Lathe: The versatile general purpose machine ideal for medium to large workpieces. Offers a wide range of operations and excellent accuracy.
- Turret Lathe: Used for high production turning of duplicate parts.Allows multiple tools to be used under CNC control. Very fast.
- Vertical Turning Lathe: For turning large diameter shallow workpieces. The workpiece is held vertically with the cutting tool on the side.
- Benchtop Jewelers Lathe: For precision turning of small delicate parts. Ideal for jewelry and precision medical/dental components.
- CNC Lathe: A computer numerically controlled lathe can automate turning operations for complex parts. Offers unmatched consistency.
- Multi-Spindle Lathes: For high volume production. Allow simultaneous processing of multiple parts, increasing output.
Turning Tools and Equipment
Turning requires cutting tools specially designed for specific operations -
- Turning Tool Bits: Made from HSS or carbide. Available in various shapes for roughing, threading, grooving, facing, and parting.
- Boring Bars: For internal boring operations to enlarge and finish holes to precise diameters.
- Tool Holders: To provide rigid clamping of insert cutting tools at precise angles. Common types include tool posts, quick change tool posts, and turrets.
- Cutting Tool Inserts: Indexable inserts made from carbide with special coatings for increased tool life. Available in various geometries.
- Tool Materials: Carbide, ceramic, cubic boron nitride (CBN), and diamond tools used for optimized turning of different workpiece materials.
- Coolants: Soluble oils, synthetic coolants provide lubrication and cooling during turning. Delivered via nozzles and through tool holders.
- Chuck: Holds and centers workpiece firmly to prevent vibration during turning. Self centering chucks automate workholding.
- Faceplate: The faceplate attaches to the spindle and is used for turning large diameter workpieces.
Turning Applications
Turning is applied across several industries to produce a variety of components:
- Automotive: Engine parts like shafts, cylinders, pistons. Transmission and steering components.
- Aerospace: Aircraft structural and engine parts, landing gear components, fasteners. Missile casings and fittings.
- Medical: Implants, surgical tools, needles, and other hospital instruments. Dental drills and prosthetic implants.
- Industrial Machinery: Pump shafts, valves, connectors, bearing races, rollers, fasteners.
- Construction: Piles, columns, scaffolding, cranes, hydraulic cylinders.
- Transportation: Axles, couplers, railway wheels, steering columns, brake rotors.
- Oil and Gas: Pipes, tubing, casings, valves, drill bits, wellheads.
From simple fasteners and bushings to complex transmission gears and engine parts, turning plays a critical role in producing precision cylindrical components across every industry. With capabilities for small and large scale production, this versatile machining process will continue to be integral to manufacturing. CNC Milling CNC Machining